The Magic Behind a Woven Cloth
Weaving is a method of producing fabric by inter-lacing two yarns. There are two ways to weave: handlooms or power looms (power-oriented). While interlacing, two types of yarns have to be used, one that runs lengthwise and the other that runs crosswise. Lengthwise yarns are called warp and crosswise yarns are called weft or filling. There are three types of weaves generally: plain, twill and satin. A particular type is accomplished by interlacing the yarns in a specific manner and by determining the closeness or looseness of the weave.
According to the research, weaving was already known to the people of Paleothic Era, i.e. about 27000 years ago. The oldest known textile was found in the Americas, in Guitarrero Caves. Weaving, as the researchers claim, have been present in all the ancient civilizations and have been an important aspect of their economy. With time and technology, the concept became simpler and easier.
In all the methods of weaving, shedding is an important process to be followed as one of the primary process of weaving, after which the use of weft starts in a process known as picking. The operation then continues with a process that lay the weft close to the junction of the warp, known as beating in. Hence, weaving generally involves three processes called shedding, picking and beating in.
Weaving is done or performed on a device called loom, which exists in great variety. A loom allows the interweaving of the warp and the weft. There are generally two broad categories of looms: handlooms and power looms. Handlooms, as the name suggests are the looms, on which the process of weaving is performed manually by weavers. However, power looms are operated by electricity and generally use shuttle for the process. Usually in a textile mill, power looms are used for weaving. The first power loom was designed in 1784 by Edmund Cartwright.